عنوان مقاله [English]
In this study, using the HYCOM, the role of bed friction in the salinity front was studied. A resolution of 0.05° horizontally and 29 hybrid layers were used for the simulation, and the simulation area includes the entire Persian Gulf and most parts of the Oman-Sea (up to 59.9°E). The model uses the initial conditions of the WOA13 data with a resolution of 0.25°, the sponge boundary condition in the east of the Oman Sea with an e-folding time of 78 day and a buffer zone of 50 km. The CFSV2 Atmospheric Forcing (0.2°) uses 1-hourly data with baro-tropic and baro-clinic time-steps of 15,120 seconds respectively. The model was integrated from 2011 to 2015, and the results of 2015 were selected for discussion. The results indicate that eddies are formed along the salinity front. The salinity front appears to be prone to baroclinic instability that mainly appears in the summer months in the form of cyclonic-eddies (more saline center) and anti-cyclonic eddies (less saline center), which peak in August. In this instability, in addition to seasonal changes and density stratification, the role of friction is important. Spectral analysis of water characteristics in the salinity front shows the time scales of eddies, which varies from several hours to about three-months. Once the drag coefficient is halved and then doubled. The results indicate that the advance of the salinity front into the Persian Gulf has an inverse relationship with the drag- coefficient. Also, in lower friction runs, anticyclone-eddies is not observed, but in higher friction mode, both cyclonic and anti-cyclonic eddies were observed.
 Johns WE, Yao F, Olson DB, Josey SA, Grist JP, Smeed DA. Observations of seasonal exchange through the Straits of Hormuz and the inferred heat and freshwater budgets of the Persian Gulf. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 2003 Dec; 108(C12).
 Thoppil PG, Hogan PJ. A modeling study of circulation and eddies in the Persian Gulf. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 2010 Sep; 40(9):2122-34.
 Hunter JR. Aspects of the Dynamics of the Residual Circulation of the Persian Gulf. In: Gade HG, Edwards A, Svendsen H, editors. Coastal Oceanography. Boston, MA: Springer; 1983.p.31-42.(NATO Conference Series, vol 11)
 Reynolds RM. Physical oceanography of the Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman—Results from the Mt Mitchell expedition. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 1993 Jan 1;27:35-59.
 Chao SY, Kao TW, Al‐Hajri KR. A numerical investigation of circulation in the Persian Gulf. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 1992 Jul 15;97(C7):11219-36.
 Lardner RW, Belen MS, Cekirge HM. Finite difference model for tidal flows in the Persian Gulf. Computers & Mathematics with Applications. 1982 Jan 1;8(6):425-44.
 Blain CA. Modeling three-dimensional, thermohaline-driven circulation in the Persian Gulf. In:Estuarine and Coastal Modeling. 2000:74-93.
 L'Hégaret P, Carton X, Louazel S, Boutin G. Mesoscale eddies and submesoscale structures of Persian Gulf Water off the Omani coast in spring 2011. Ocean Science. 2016 May 1;12(3).
 سیوف جهرمی مریم. مدلسازی عددی اختلاط میان مقیاس چگالی در جبههها (مطالعه محدوده تنگه هرمز) [رساله دکترا]. خرمشهر: دانشگاه علوم و فنون دریایی خرمشهر؛ 1392.
 Pous S, Lazure P, Carton X. A model of the general circulation in the Persian Gulf and in the Strait of Hormuz: Intraseasonal to interannual variability. Continental Shelf Research. 2015 Feb 15;94:55-70.
Blain CA. Barotropic tidal and residual circulation in the Persian Gulf. In: Spaulding ML Butler HL, editors. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Estuarine and Coastal Modeling; October 22-24, 1997; Alexandria, Virginia. American Society of Civil Engineers;1998. p. 166-80.
 Bleck R, Boudra DB. Initial testing of a numerical ocean circulation model using a hybrid (quasi-isopycnic) vertical coordinate. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 1981 Jun;11(6):755-70.
 Bleck R, Benjamin SG. Regional weather prediction with a model combining terrain-following and isentropic coordinates. Part I: Model description. Monthly Weather Review. 1993 Jun;121(6):1770-85.
 Bleck R, Halliwell GR, Wallcraft AJ, Carroll S, Kelly K, Rushing K. HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) user’s manual: Details of the numerical code. HYCOM, version. 2002;2(01):1-211
 Bleck R. An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates. Ocean modelling. 2002 Jan 1;4(1):55-88.
 Wallcraft AJ, Metzger EJ, Carroll SN. Software design description for the hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM), Version 2.2. Naval Research Lab Stennis Space Center MS Oceanography DIV; 2009 Feb 12:1-155
 Canuto VM, Howard A, Cheng Y, Dubovikov MS. Ocean turbulence. Part I: One-point closure model—Momentum and heat vertical diffusivities. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 2001 Jun;31(6):1413-26.
 Stewart RH. Introduction to physical oceanography. College Station: Texas A & M University; 2008 Sep.
 Johnson GC, Lueck RG, Sanford TB. Stress on the Mediterranean outflow plume: part II. Turbulent dissipation and shear measurements. Oceanographic Literature Review. 1995; 8(42):613-4.
 Girton JB, Sanford TB. Descent and modification of the overflow plume in the Denmark Strait. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 2003 Jul;33(7):1351-64.
 Cheng RT, Ling CH, Gartner JW, Wang PF. Estimates of bottom roughness length and bottom shear stress in South San Francisco Bay, California. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 1999 Apr 15;104(C4):7715-28.
 Yao F, Johns WE. A HYCOM modeling study of the Persian Gulf: 1. Model configurations and surface circulation. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 2010 Nov 1;115(C11).
 Yao F, Johns WE. A HYCOM modeling study of the Persian Gulf: 2. Formation and export of Persian Gulf Water. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 2010 Nov 1;115(C11).
 Vallis GK. Atmospheric and oceanic fluid dynamics. Cambridge University Press; 2017 Jun 8:347-48.